them. I used second order accuracy and incompatible modes. To determine fracture toughness properties, to determine crack initiation and crack growth. Some of these tests have kind of weird behavior.
To determine static or dynamic material properties of composites, ceramics or metals. Recently I applied a virtual load around the vvv bonnen amstelveen center of the coupon where we should expect necking in abaqus. In my models, I either have necking take place, say right on time, or no such necking takes place and strain remains uniform and entire length of the specimen takes part in elongation. All of these enabled me to come up with the right deformation (necking at centre instead of somewhere else or having multiple necking along the length of the coupon). I have carried out several coupon tests (rectangular coupons similar to those of astm E8).
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